Home Health and Diseases Diabetes Mellitus: The Truth You Need to Know About

Diabetes Mellitus: The Truth You Need to Know About

by Stephen Pantazopoulos

Diabetes Mellitus, commonly known as Diabetes, is a chronic metabolic disorder that wreaks havoc on the body’s ability to regulate sugar levels. This disease is caused by a combination of hereditary and environmental factors, making it a long-lasting condition that requires constant management.

When a person has Diabetes, their body struggles to convert food into energy, leading to high sugar levels. This can occur due to inadequate insulin production or because the cells in the body are resistant to insulin. Unfortunately, there is no cure for Diabetes, but it can be controlled through proper management.

It’s important to note that Diabetes can be inherited, but it can also develop later in life. The most common cause of this disease is being overweight and inactive, making it crucial to maintain a healthy lifestyle to prevent its onset.

Don’t let Diabetes control your life. Take charge of your health and manage your Diabetes Mellitus to stay healthy and live your best life.

Diabetes Mellitus

Types of Diabetes Mellitus

There are three types of common diabetes: type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Type 1 and type 2 are the most common types of diabetes, while gestational diabetes only applies to pregnant women who have not previously been diagnosed with diabetes or other risk factors for developing it.


Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes, also known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a condition that occurs when the body fails to produce insulin. Insulin is a hormone responsible for breaking down sugar in the body for use throughout the body.

Individuals living with type 1 diabetes must take insulin regularly, either through injections or an insulin pump. Unfortunately, there is no cure for this condition. Once diagnosed, individuals must regularly monitor their blood sugar levels, manage their insulin intake, and make necessary lifestyle changes to manage their condition.

Type 1 diabetes accounts for approximately 10% of all cases of diabetes mellitus in children and adults under the age of 20. Onset can be sudden or gradual, but it typically occurs before the age of 40.

It is crucial for individuals with type 1 diabetes to receive proper medical care and support to manage their condition effectively. With the right treatment and lifestyle changes, individuals with type 1 diabetes can lead healthy and fulfilling lives.


Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes, also known as non-insulin dependent diabetes, is a condition that arises from the body’s inadequate utilization of insulin. This type of diabetes accounts for over 90% of all cases of Diabetes Mellitus. It is typically caused by excess body weight and physical inactivity.

In patients with type 2 diabetes, insulin production still occurs, but it is insufficient to meet the body’s needs. Unfortunately, this condition is becoming increasingly common in children, particularly among certain ethnic groups.

It is crucial to address the root causes of type 2 diabetes, such as poor diet and lack of exercise, to prevent its onset and manage its symptoms. By adopting a healthy lifestyle, individuals can reduce their risk of developing this condition and improve their overall health and well-being.


Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes happens during pregnancy when a person turns out to be less delicate to insulin. People who are overweight going into their pregnancy have more risk of getting this Diabetes Mellitus.

Gestational diabetes for the most part disappears after pregnancy. In any case, if you have gestational diabetes you’re at higher risk of getting Type 2 diabetes.


Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus

How could you know if you have diabetes mellitus? Most common symptoms of sugar are

  • Urinate a lot, often at night
  • Very thirsty
  • Lose weight without trying
  • Very hungry
  • Blurry vision
  • Numb or tingling hands or feet
  • Feel very tired
  • Very dry skin
  • Sores that heal slowly
  • More infections than usual


Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes symptoms can foster in only a couple of weeks or months and can be serious. You could take note:

Weight loss

If your body can’t get energy from your food, it will begin consuming muscle and fat for energy all things considered. You might lose weight even however you haven’t changed how you eat.

Nausea and vomiting

When your body resorts to consuming fat, it makes ketones. These can develop in your blood to dangerous levels, a conceivably life-threatening condition called diabetic ketoacidosis. Ketones can cause you to feel wiped out to your stomach.


Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes symptoms often require quite a while to create. Certain individuals notice no symptoms by any means.

Yeast infections

All kinds of people with Diabetes Mellitus can get these. Yeast benefits from glucose, so having plenty around makes it flourish. Infections can fill in any warm, clammy crease of skin, including:

  • Between fingers and toes
  • Under breasts
  • In or around sex organs

Slow-healing injuries or cuts

Over the long haul, high glucose can influence your blood stream and cause nerve harm that makes it difficult for your body to recuperate wounds.

Pain or deadness in your feet or legs

This is one more aftereffect of nerve damage.


Symptoms of Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes generally has no symptoms. Assuming you’re pregnant, your doctor might test you for gestational diabetes somewhere in the range of 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. If necessary, you can make changes to save your health and your baby’s health.


Complications of Diabetes Mellitus

High blood sugar levels can truly damage each parts of your body. These are called diabetes complications.


Eye Damage (retinopathy)

Individuals with Diabetes Mellitus are at risk of developing a type of eye disease known as retinopathy, which can lead to decreased vision or even blindness. The primary culprits behind this condition are consistently high levels of glucose, as well as elevated blood pressure and cholesterol. Fortunately, retinopathy can be effectively managed through regular eye exams and by maintaining glucose and lipid levels within a normal range. It is crucial for those with Diabetes Mellitus to prioritize their eye health and work closely with their healthcare provider to prevent and manage any potential complications.


Diabetic kidney disease

Elevated sugar levels can significantly impact the kidneys’ ability to effectively filter waste from the body. As a result, substances such as protein may mistakenly pass into the urine, leading to gradual damage to the kidneys, known as diabetic nephropathy.

Individuals with hypertension are at a heightened risk for kidney disease, with Diabetes Mellitus being the primary cause. If left untreated, diabetic kidney disease can progress to the point of requiring dialysis.

It is crucial to prioritize the management and treatment of diabetes to prevent the onset of kidney disease and its potential complications. By maintaining healthy blood sugar levels and blood pressure, individuals can safeguard their kidney function and overall well-being.


Blood vessel complications

Atherosclerosis is a condition that can lead to heart attacks and strokes. It is a disease that occurs 2 to 10 times more frequently in individuals with diabetes than in those without. This condition can cause long-term damage to various parts of the body, including the heart, brain, legs, eyes, kidneys, nerves, and skin.

The narrowing of blood vessels over time can result in a range of health issues, such as angina, heart failure, strokes, leg cramps during walking (claudication), poor vision, chronic kidney disease, nerve damage (neuropathy), and skin breakdown.

It is crucial to take preventative measures to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis and its associated complications. This includes maintaining a healthy diet, engaging in regular physical activity, quitting smoking, and managing diabetes and other chronic conditions. By taking these steps, individuals can protect their overall health and well-being.


Dental Problems in Diabetes

Individuals diagnosed with Diabetes Mellitus are at a heightened risk of experiencing severe dental and oral health issues. The likelihood of encountering dental and oral health problems increases with the degree of uncontrolled sugar levels. This is due to the fact that uncontrolled diabetes weakens white blood cells, which are the body’s primary defense against infections that can occur in the mouth.

Over time, untreated plaque can lead to tooth decay, gum infection (gum disease), periodontitis, and tooth loss. Therefore, it is crucial to be vigilant for signs of gum problems, such as swollen, tender, or bleeding gums. Regardless of whether you have diabetes or not, it is essential to maintain good oral hygiene by brushing, flossing, and using antiseptic mouthwash daily. Regular dental cleanings and check-ups are also necessary to prevent serious dental problems.



Experts have identified areas of correlation between diabetes and depression, highlighting potential shared biological components. While this may be a result of managing life with a chronic condition, it is also important to note that diabetes mellitus and depression often exacerbate each other when occurring simultaneously. It is crucial to address both conditions in a comprehensive treatment plan to improve overall health and well-being.


Foot and skin problems

Individuals with diabetes are at a heightened risk of developing foot problems due to nerve and vessel damage, as well as restricted blood flow to their extremities. As such, it is imperative for those with diabetes mellitus to take foot care seriously.

Neglecting proper foot care can result in seemingly minor wounds or breaks in the skin escalating into extensive skin ulcers. If left untreated, these ulcers can worsen and lead to gangrene, ultimately necessitating foot amputation.

In addition to the risk of skin ulcers, individuals with diabetes are also susceptible to various skin complications, including bacterial and viral infections. Furthermore, diabetes can cause specific skin conditions such as diabetic dermopathy, diabetic blisters, and necrobiosis.

It is crucial for individuals with diabetes to prioritize foot care and seek medical attention promptly if any foot-related issues arise. By doing so, they can mitigate the risk of developing severe complications and maintain their overall health and well-being.


Pregnancy complications

Women who have diabetes during pregnancy are at risk of various complications if they do not carefully monitor and manage their condition. To prevent potential organ damage to the fetus, women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes should achieve target glucose levels before conception.

It is important for all women with diabetes during pregnancy, whether it be type 1, type 2, or gestational, to strive for target glucose levels throughout their pregnancy to minimize complications. High glucose levels during pregnancy can lead to the fetus becoming overweight, which can result in delivery problems, injury to both the child and mother, and a sudden drop in glucose levels after birth. Furthermore, children who are exposed to high glucose levels in the womb for an extended period of time are at a higher risk of developing diabetes mellitus later in life.


What is Prediabetes?

Prediabetes is a condition in which your blood sugar level is elevated beyond the normal range, yet not high enough to warrant a diagnosis of diabetes. This state is also referred to as impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance.

It is important to note that prediabetes can lead to other health complications, such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Therefore, it is crucial to take proactive measures to manage this condition.

Fortunately, prediabetes can be effectively treated through lifestyle modifications, including a healthy diet, regular physical exercise, and medication as prescribed by your physician. By implementing these changes, you can significantly reduce your risk of developing more serious health issues down the line.


How to Diagnose the Diabetes Mellitus ?

Diabetes is diagnosed and controlled by checking your sugar level in the blood. There are 4 tests that can count your blood sugar level: Fasting sugar test, Random sugar test, Oral sugar tolerance test and HbA1c test.


HbA1C Test

The A1C test measures your normal blood glucose level over the beyond 2 or 90 days. You have diabetes if your A1C result is 6.5 percent or above on two different tests. Between 5.7 and 6.4 percent of the A1C is considered prediabetes. 5.7 or less is regarded as normal.


Fasting Blood Glucose Test

This measures your blood glucose after a short-term fast (not eating). A fasting blood glucose level of 99 mg/dL or lower is normal, 100 to 125 mg/dL shows you have prediabetes, and 126 mg/dL or higher demonstrates you have diabetes mellitus.


Sugar Tolerance Test

This test measures your glucose levels after consuming a liquid that contains sugar. Prior to the test, you will be required to fast for a short period of time, during which your blood will be drawn to determine your fasting sugar level. Following this, you will consume the liquid and your glucose levels will be monitored at 60 minutes, 2 hours, and potentially 3 hours after consumption.

A glucose level of 140 mg/dL or lower at the 2-hour mark is considered average, while a reading between 140 to 199 mg/dL indicates prediabetes. A reading of 200 mg/dL or higher demonstrates the presence of diabetes mellitus.

It is important to note that this test is a valuable tool in diagnosing and monitoring diabetes, and should be conducted under the guidance of a healthcare professional. By understanding your glucose levels, you can take proactive steps towards managing your health and preventing complications associated with diabetes.


Random Blood Glucose Test

This measures your blood glucose at the time you’re tested. You can take this test whenever and don’t have to fast (not eat) first. A blood glucose level of 200 mg/dL or higher shows you have diabetes mellitus.


Type of TestNormal
sugar test
< 100​100-125> 125
Random (anytime)
sugar test
< 140​140-199> 199
Oral sugar
tolerance test
< 140140-199> 199
HbA1c test< 5.7%5.7 – 6.4%> 6.4%


What is PP Sugar Test? (2 Hours Post Meals)

The Postprandial (PP) test is a diagnostic tool used to assess how your body responds to sugar after a meal. Typically, within 20 minutes of eating, insulin levels will rise to their peak. This increase in insulin is necessary to transport glucose into the cells and maintain healthy blood sugar levels. Ideally, within two hours of consuming a meal, both insulin and sugar levels should return to normal.

The PP test is conducted to measure glucose levels after a meal and determine if they are within the expected range. This information can be used to diagnose conditions such as diabetes or insulin resistance. By understanding how your body processes sugar, healthcare professionals can develop personalized treatment plans to help you maintain optimal health.

Note: This test is not used for diagnosing diabetes mellitus.


How to Prevent your Diabetes Mellitus ?

Rolling out a couple of improvements in your lifestyle currently may assist you with keeping away from the serious health complications of diabetes later on, for example, nerve, kidney and heart harm. Prevention is particularly significant if you’re right now at an expanded risk of type 2 diabetes due to excess weight or obesity, high cholesterol, or a family background of diabetes. It’s never past the point where it is possible to begin.


Healthy Diet

It is critical to diminish how much calories you eat and drink every day, so you can lose weight and keep it off. That’s what to do, your diet ought to incorporate more modest segments and less fat and sugar. You ought to likewise eat various foods from every food group, including a lot of entire grains, fruits, and vegetables. It’s likewise really smart to restrict red meat, and stay away from processed meats.


Lose your Weight

Excess weight is the absolute most significant cause of type 2 diabetes. Being overweight builds the possibilities developing type 2 diabetes. Being fat makes you 20 to multiple times bound to develop Diabetes Mellitus than somebody with a healthy weight.

Losing weight can help if your weight is over the healthy-weight range. Losing 6-10% of your ongoing weight can cut your possibilities developing type 2 diabetes into equal parts.


Exercise Regularly

Doing physical activity regularly may assist with preventing diabetes. Exercise expands the insulin responsiveness of your cells, implying that you really want less insulin to deal with your blood glucose levels. Many types of physical activity have been displayed to decrease insulin resistance and blood glucose in grown-ups with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. If you’re simply starting an exercise routine, begin with short workouts and work as long as 150 minutes out of every week.



Several huge, prospective, observational investigations have shown that cigarette smoking increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. The impact of smoking end on diabetes risk is variable and may rely on individual patient factors. Smoking suspension might diminish diabetes risk by reducing foundational inflammation. Then again, smoking discontinuance is frequently connected with weight gain, which will expand the risk of Diabetes Mellitus. This point is evaluated exhaustively independently.


Drink Water

Drinking water rather than different beverages might assist with controlling sugar and insulin levels, in this way reducing the risk of diabetes. Sticking with water more often than not assists you with avoiding beverages that are high in glucose, preservatives and other superfluous ingredients.


Treatment for Diabetes Mellitus

Monitoring your blood sugar, using insulin, and taking oral drugs could all be part of your therapy, depending on the kind of diabetes you have. Maintaining a healthy weight, eating a balanced diet, and getting regular exercise are all crucial aspects of treating diabetes.


Type 1 Diabetes Treatment

Insulin injections or the use of an insulin pump, routine blood sugar monitoring, and carbohydrate tracking are all part of the treatment for type 1 diabetes. For certain individuals with type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, pancreas relocate or islet cell relocate might be a choice.

You may check and record your blood sugar as frequently as four to eight times each day, depending on your treatment plan, to many times per week. The only way to guarantee that your blood sugar level stays within your desired range is through careful monitoring. People who use insulin therapy may also decide to use a continuous glucose monitor to track their blood sugar levels.

Your doctor will likely advise routine A1C testing in addition to daily blood sugar monitoring to determine your average blood sugar level over the previous two to three months.


Type 2 Diabetes Treatment

Treatment of type 2 diabetes mostly involves lifestyle changes, checking blood sugar, oral diabetes drugs, insulin or both.

People with type 2 diabetes who aren’t taking insulin generally check blood sugar once in every 3 months. You also need HbA1C testing to measure average blood sugar once or twice a year.

Sometimes other oral or injectable drugs are also administered. Certain diabetes treatments encourage your pancreas to make and release more insulin. Others prevent your liver from producing and releasing glucose, which reduces the amount of insulin required to transfer sugar into your cells.

Exercise is significant for losing weight or maintaining a healthy weight. It additionally assists with managing glucose levels.

Certain persons who have type 2 diabetes need insulin treatment. Previously, insulin treatment was utilized if all else fails, yet today it very well might be recommended sooner in the event that glucose targets aren’t met with way of life changes and medications.


Treatment for Gestational Diabetes

Controlling your glucose level is crucial for keeping your child healthy. It can likewise hold you back from having complications during delivery. As well as having a healthy diet and exercising routinely, your treatment plan might incorporate monitoring your glucose. At times, you may likewise utilize insulin or oral drugs.

Your provider will monitor your glucose level during work. Assuming that your glucose rises, your child might deliver elevated levels of insulin. This can prompt low glucose just after birth.


Diabetes Mellitus – Frequently Asked Questions

Here’s a list of commonly asked questions about diabetes :

What could I eat if I have diabetes mellitus?

You can eat pretty much anything you need. It is tied in with realizing proper piece sizes and the amount you are putting on your plate. A dietitian can assist you with figuring out how to count carbohydrates and with meal arranging that is specific for you.

What is Glocometer?

A blood glucose meter or Glucometer is a small, portable tool that is used to measure how much sugar is in the blood. Person with diabetes often use a glucometer to help them control their condition.

It can tell you in seconds if your blood sugar is too low, too high, or normal. Talk to your doctor  about when to use it.

Why does it matter if my blood sugar is 120 or 200?

It is vital to monitor your blood sugar level. At the point when your blood sugar level is high, it can cause damage in your veins and arteries. This damage could prompt confusions later, for example, heart assaults, strokes, kidney disease, neuropathies, vision problems, and so on.

What foods have carbohydrates?

Fruits, vegetables, milk, yogurt, rice, oats, bread and different grains all have carbs and give you important nutrients. Many nibble foods, like pretzels, chips and popcorn, have carbs. Desserts, including ordinary pop, cakes, sweets and treats, likewise contain carbohydrates. Make certain to check the nutrition mark on every food thing to decide carbohyrdate content.

Do I have to follow a low carb diet?

Carbohydrates are an important part of a healthy diet. With diabetes, watching segment measures and getting the greater part of your carbs from fruits, vegetables, entire grains and low fat milk and yogurt is vital. Other than counting carbs, people with diabetes mellitus can likewise benefit from eating lower fat, high fiber foods and barely enough calories to maintain a healthy weight.

Can I eat sugar free as much as I need?

Sugar free foods can be part of a healthy meal plan in limited quantities. Remember however that a portion of these foods actually have carbs and may affect your blood glucose levels. Many sugar free foods have calories and carbohydrates and lots of fat.

Originally posted 2023-06-18 09:59:50.

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