Home Health and Diseases Elite 12 Most Common Diseases and Treatments

Elite 12 Most Common Diseases and Treatments

Find relevant medical information on common diseases and treatments

by Stephen Pantazopoulos

There are a number of different diseases that each have their own set of symptoms and treatments. The following is a list of the most common diseases and treatments.

Common Diseases and Treatments

List of Common Diseases and Treatments

Allergies

An allergy is an overactive immune response caused by an openness to certain foreign chemicals. The reaction is misunderstood because these foreign compounds are frequently seen as harmless by the immune system in nonallergic persons and do not trigger a reaction in them. The body recognizes the material as foreign in allergic persons, and the allergic component of the immune system creates a reaction.

Symptoms

The symptoms of allergies are the consequence of several factors. These incorporate the kind of allergy you have and how severe the allergy is.

Food allergies
  • Swelling
  • Hives
  • Nausea
  • Fatigue
Seasonal allergies
  • Congestion
  • Runny nose
  • Swollen eyes
Severe allergies
  • Breathing difficulties
  • Light-headedness
  • Loss of consciousness

Treatment

The treatment for allergies are following :

Avoiding allergens

Your doctor will support you in doing everything it takes to identify and avoid your allergy triggers. This is, by far, the most important step in reducing allergy reactions and symptoms.

Medications

Medication can help reduce your immune system reaction and allergy symptoms depending on your allergy. Your doctor may recommend over-the-counter or professionally prescribed medication in the form of pills or liquids, nasal sprays, or eyedrops.

Immunotherapy

Your doctor may recommend allergen immunotherapy if previous treatments do not completely relieve your allergies. This treatment consists of a series of injections of purified allergen separates administered over a period of several years.

Another type of immunotherapy is a pill that is placed beneath the tongue (sublingually) until it dissolves. Some dust allergies are treated using sublingual medications.

Epinephrine for emergencies

If you have a severe allergy, you may need to carry an emergency epinephrine shot on a regular basis. An epinephrine shot (Auvi-Q, EpiPen, and others) can alleviate symptoms until you seek emergency medical attention.

 

Common Cold

The common cold is a contagious infection with a self-limited range of viruses that can cause it. In medicine, an upper respiratory viral infection is what is commonly referred to as the common cold. Common cold symptoms include coughing, sore throats, low-grade fevers, blocked nasal passages, runny noses, and wheezing. The common cold can be brought on by more than 200 distinct types of viruses, with rhinovirus accounting for 30% to 40% of all mature colds.

Symptoms

  • Sneezing.
  • Stuffy nose.
  • Runny nose.
  • Sore throat.
  • Coughing.
  • Mucus dripping down your throat.
  • Watery eyes.
  • Fever.

Treatment

The common cold has no known cure. The majority of cases of the common cold usually get well on their own in a week to ten days. Coughing, however, might be postponed for a few more days. While your body heals, take care of yourself as best you can. For instance, stay hydrated, humidify the air, use saline nasal washes, and get enough sleep.

Antibiotics shouldn’t be used until there is a bacterial infection because they are useless against cold viruses.

Utilizing over-the-counter (OTC) medications to reduce fever, bodily throbs, congestion and cough might help relieve your adverse symptoms. A few treatments might help you manage your adverse effects and stop feeling so hopeless. Common cold medicines, such as over-the-counter pain relievers, decongestants, nasal sprays, and cough syrups, do have benefits and drawbacks. Try to avoid giving children over-the-counter cold medicines.

 

Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)

Conjunctivitis, often known as pink eye, is an irritation of the conjunctiva—the membranes that cover the whites of the eyes and the inside portion of the eyelids. These membranes react to a wide range of germs, viruses, allergens, aggravators, poisonous chemicals, as well as to fundamental illnesses that exist within the body.

Conjunctivitis or Pink Eye

Symptoms

  • Pink or red color in the white of the eye(s)
  • Swelling of the conjunctiva (the thin layer that lines the white part of the eye and the inside of the eyelid) and/or eyelids
  • Increased tear production
  • Feeling like a foreign body is in the eye(s) or an urge to rub the eye(s)
  • Itching, irritation, and/or burning
  • Discharge (pus or mucus)
  • Crusting of eyelids or lashes, especially in the morning
  • Contact lenses that feel uncomfortable and/or do not stay in place on the eye

Treatments

Depending on the type of conjunctivitis you have, your pink eye treatment may typically vary.

There are no particular therapies available if a viral infection led to your conjunctivitis. Your body fights the infection on its own. You could help your eyes feel more at ease by placing a cool, wet towel over them.

Depending on how severe your side effects are, your ophthalmologist may recommend antibiotic eye drops if your pink eye is the result of a bacterial infection. An infection brought on by a virus or an allergy cannot be treated with antibiotics.

If allergies are the source of your conjunctivitis, you may be instructed to use certain eye drops to relieve the itching and puffiness.

In most cases, conjunctivitis goes away on its own in one to fourteen days. See your ophthalmologist if your side effects persist past that point. They can make sure you don’t have a more severe eye condition.

 

Diarrhea

Diarrhea is characterized by an increase in the frequency of solid discharges or a decrease in stools (more prominent looseness of stool). While changes in the frequency of solid discharges and the looseness of the stools may occur independently of one another, progressions frequently occur in both.

Symptoms

  • Abdominal cramps or pain.
  • Bloating.
  • Nausea.
  • Vomiting.
  • Fever.
  • Blood in the stool.
  • Mucus in the stool.
  • Urgent need to have a bowel movement.

Treatments

Most mild and simple cases of diarrhea are treatable at home. You’ll typically feel better quickly if you use an over-the-counter medication like bismuth subsalicylate.

However, over-the-counter medicines aren’t always the answer. You’ll need to see a doctor for treatment if an infection or parasite is the cause of your diarrhea. As a general rule, if you also have a fever or blood in your stool, you shouldn’t take over-the-counter drugs for diarrhea. Call your healthcare provider in those situations.

 

Flu (Influenza)

The RNA viruses (Orthomyxoviridae family) that cause influenza, also known as “the flu,” infect the respiratory tracts of many animals, birds, and people. Most frequently, the infection causes the person to experience a fever, hack, migraine, and discomfort (depleted, no energy); nevertheless, in rare cases, sore throats, nausea, retching, and diarrhea may also appear. The majority of people experience flu-related side effects for about 1–14 days before fully recovering. Whatever the case, compared to the majority of other viral respiratory infections, such as the common cold, influenza (flu) infection can result in a more severe disease, with a mortality rate (passing rate) of about 0.1% of those infected with the virus.

Symptoms

  • fever
  • cough.
  • sore throat.
  • runny or stuffy nose.
  • muscle or body aches.
  • headaches.
  • fatigue (tiredness)
  • vomiting and diarrhea(more common in children than adults).

Treatments

The vast majority with influenza who are otherwise healthy don’t require unique medications or treatments. If you have the flu, you ought to:

  • Rest.
  • Drink lots of fluids.
  • Eat a light diet.
  • Stay at home.
  • Take acetaminophen to reduce fever and relieve muscle aches.

 

Headaches

A headache is characterized by pain in the head or upper neck. Because the actual brain lacks nerves that contribute to pain sensation, the tissues and structures that surround the skull or brain are where pain initially manifests (pain strands). A headache can be caused by irritation or disruption of the thin layer of tissue that surrounds bones, the muscles that enclose the skull, sinuses, eyes, and ears, as well as the delicate tissues (meninges) that cover the outer layer of the brain and spinal cord, arteries, veins, and nerves. It could hurt dull, harsh, or pulsating, and it could hurt continually, sporadically, gently, or in an unusual way.

Symptoms

  • Slow onset of the headache.
  • Head usually hurts on both sides.
  • Pain is dull or feels like a band or vice around the head.
  • Pain may involve the back part of the head or neck.
  • Pain is mild to moderate, but not severe.

Treatment

When one of the challenging circumstances mentioned above is not present, more straightforward treatment options might be taken into account. Doctors may make an effort to pinpoint headache (particularly headache) “triggers,” such as stress or certain meals, and may offer treatment options such as:

  • therapies and drugs for prevention.
  • alterations to one’s way of life, such as methods of relaxation and stress reduction.
  • the use of analgesics like acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Avoid giving aspirin to kids and teenagers.

Also Read : The 8 Worst Deadly Pandemics in History

High Blood Pressure(Hypertension)

If high blood pressure (hypertension) is not managed, it may be dangerous. You could put yourself in grave danger of suffering a heart attack, a stroke, a kidney infection, and other medical issues. The force or pressure of blood pushing against blood vessel walls is measured as blood pressure. When you have high blood pressure, your body’s blood vessel walls are under constant, excessive pressure. This condition is known as hypertension. Since you might not be aware that anything is wrong, high blood pressure is sometimes referred to as the “silent killer.” However, damage is still being done to your body.

Symptoms

  • Severe headaches
  • Nosebleed
  • Fatigue or confusion
  • Vision problems
  • Chest pain
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Blood in the urine
  • Pounding in your chest, neck, or ears

Treatment

High blood pressure is treated with medications and heart-healthy lifestyle modifications. Your healthcare practitioner and you will collaborate to develop a treatment strategy. It might only include a change in lifestyle. These adjustments, along with heart-healthy eating and exercise, can be incredibly effective. In any case, the progressions occasionally fail to manage or reduce your excessive blood pressure. You could then need to take medication. Blood pressure medications come in many varieties. Some people must consume more than one sort. If another medical issue or medication is the cause of your high blood pressure, fixing that issue or stopping the medication may lower your blood pressure.

 

Mononucleosis

Frequent names for the exceedingly common ailment typically caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) include infectious mononucleosis, “mono,” “kissing disease,” and glandular fever. However, other viruses can also cause the disease. This is the disease-related virus that has become well-known. Fever, tiredness, pain, and sore throat are among adverse effects of Epstein-Barr virus infection. The term “mononucleosis” refers to a viral infection that causes an increase in a particular type of mononuclear white platelets (lymphocytes) in the circulatory system relative to other white platelets. EBV is called after a member of the herpes virus family, which makes sense.

Symptoms

  • Fatigue.
  • Sore throat
  • Fever.
  • Swollen lymph nodes in your neck and armpits.
  • Swollen tonsils.
  • Headache.
  • Skin rash.
  • Soft, swollen spleen.

Treatment

Mononucleosis is a virus, so antibiotics cannot treat it.

Doctors recommend managing symptoms through:

  • medications that ease pain and lower temperature, like acetaminophen or ibuprofen.
  • Gargling with salt water helps a sore throat.
  • rest.
  • Sports should be avoided until symptoms subside.

 

Skin Infections

Bacteria can cause skin infections by infecting the surface and occasionally the deep tissue beneath the skin. A frequent type of skin infection called cellulitis results in swelling, redness, and pain in the area of the skin that is affected. Skin canker is a different type of skin infection that manifests as various discharges under the skin.

Skin Infections Symptoms

Symptoms

  • Pus or fluid leaking out of the cut.
  • Red skin around the injury.
  • A red streak that runs from the cut toward your heart.
  • A pimple or yellowish crust on top.
  • Sores that look like blisters.
  • Pain that gets worse after a few days.
  • Swelling that gets worse after a few days.
  • A fever.

Treatment

Skin infection signs and symptoms begin to improve with anti-infection treatment after around two to three days. Inform your doctor right away if your skin infection doesn’t get better or gets worse. If effective or oral anti-infection medications are recommended for you, make sure to finish the entire course of anti-toxins unless otherwise directed. Keep in mind that the type and severity of the infection will determine how long the treatment will last. The affected area or twisted should be kept clean with excellent skin hygiene, as is the case with any skin illnesses.

 

Sore Throat(Pharyngitis)

A sore throat is defined as soreness, scratchiness, or irritation of the throat that worsens as you swallow. A viral infection, such as a cold or this season’s virus, is the most prevalent cause of a painful throat (pharyngitis). A virus-caused sore throat will go away on its own. Strep throat (streptococcal infection), a less common type of sore throat caused by bacteria, necessitates anti-toxins treatment to avoid complications. Other, more unusual causes of sore throat may necessitate more sophisticated treatment.

Symptoms

  • a painful throat, especially when swallowing.
  • a dry, scratchy throat.
  • redness in the back of your mouth.
  • bad breath.
  • a mild cough.
  • swollen neck glands.

Treatment

You can: To aid in reducing the severity of a sore throat and shorten its duration:

  • use warm, salty water to gargle (not for children)
  • consume a lot of water
  • eat chilly or tender foods
  • Avoid smoking and smoke-filled areas
  • ingest ice cubes, ice cream, or hard candies rest

Try to stay at home and avoid interaction with others until you feel better if you have a fever or don’t feel well enough to engage in your usual activities.

 

Toothache

Pain in or near a tooth is known as a toothache. The tooth’s inside or the surrounding bone and gum tissues may be the source of the discomfort. The typical dental pain that a person experiences is an ongoing, irregular pain. A toothache can be worse by temperature fluctuations, such as opening up to cold liquids or applying pressure to the tooth when chewing. In other cases, tooth discomfort may strike suddenly and without any fanfare. Another name for a toothache is odontalgia.

Symptoms

  • Pain with chewing in your teeth or jaw
  • Headaches
  • Your teeth are sensitive to heat or cold.
  • Bleeding or discharge from around a tooth or gums
  • Swelling around a tooth or swelling of your jaw
  • Injury or trauma to the area
  • Bad breath
  • Fever
  • Bad taste in your mouth
  • Swollen glands

Treatment

The treatment for tooth pain is totally dependent on the cause of the pain. If a pit is the cause of your tooth pain, your dentist will either detach the tooth or fill the pit. If the cause of your tooth is still unknown, your dental specialist may perform a root canal procedure. If you have a fever or swelling in your jaws, your dentist may advise you to take anti-infection medication.

 

Urinary Tract Infection

An infection of the urinary system is known as a urinary tract infection (UTI). Your urethra, kidneys, or bladder may become infected with this form of infection. Bacteria are not typically present in your pee (microorganisms). A byproduct of our kidneys’ filtration function is urine. Urine is produced when side effects and extra water are removed from your blood by the kidneys. Your urinary system normally transports urine with almost no pollution. However, microorganisms from outside the body might enter the urinary system, leading to problems including infection and aggravation.

Symptoms

  • A strong, persistent urge to urinate
  • A burning sensation when urinating
  • Passing frequent, small amounts of urine
  • Urine that appears cloudy
  • Urine that appears red, bright pink or cola-colored – a sign of blood in the urine
  • Strong-smelling urine
  • Pelvic pain, in women

Treatment

Antibiotics are typically used to treat both simple and serious urinary tract infections. The conditions determine the type of antibiotic and the course of treatment. Amoxicillin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (Bactrim), ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin (Macrobid), and a number of others are examples of common antibiotics used in treatment. Your doctor will choose the best treatment for your disease and the particular living things that are the cause.

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